For example, bFGF is not stable enough which is easy to be degraded by various enzymes is informative, future tests in primary culture cardiac myocyte would be more translational which will indicates the role of bFGF in the cardiac myocyte death directly. Reagents and antibodies DMEM and foetal bovine Benzyl isothiocyanate serum (FBS) were purchased from Invitrogen (Carlsbad, CA, USA). Recombinant human bFGF was purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA). Anti-Akt, p-Akt (Ser473), anti-ERK1/2, p-ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204), Mouse monoclonal to CD64.CT101 reacts with high affinity receptor for IgG (FcyRI), a 75 kDa type 1 trasmembrane glycoprotein. CD64 is expressed on monocytes and macrophages but not on lymphocytes or resting granulocytes. CD64 play a role in phagocytosis, and dependent cellular cytotoxicity ( ADCC). It also participates in cytokine and superoxide release anti-cleaved-caspase-3, cleaved-caspase-9, Bax, Bcl-2, cleaved-PARP, cytochrome was detected using a one-step TUNEL Apoptosis Assay KIT (Roche, Mannheim, Germany). The images were captured with a Nikon ECLIPSE Ti microscope (Nikon, Melville, NY, USA). The apoptotic rates of the H9C2 cells treated with TBHP and bFGF were measured using a PI/Annexin V-FITC kit (Invitrogen) and then analysed by a FACScan flow cytometer (Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA) according to the kit’s manual. Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis The cells were cultured at a density of 2??105 cells per well in growth medium for 24?hrs in 6-well plates. The cells were then pre-incubated with 50?nM bFGF which was followed 2?hrs later by exposure to 100?M TBHP for 8?hrs. Meanwhile, inhibitors of PI3K and ERK phosphorylation were added to the cells 2? hrs prior to TBHP at a final concentration of 20?M. Annexin V assays were performed with the Annexin V-FITC Apoptosis Detection Kit (Becton Dickinson, San Jose, CA, Benzyl isothiocyanate USA). Cells were washed twice with cold PBS and re-suspended in binding buffer before the addition of Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide (PI). Cells were vortexed and incubated for 15?min. in the dark at room temperature before analysis using a FACSCalibur flow cytometer (BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA, USA) and FlowJo software (Tree Star, San Carlos, CA, USA). Immunofluorescence Staining To determine CHOP, GRP-78, cleaved-PARP and cleaved caspase-12 activities, sections were incubated with 0.3% H2O2 in methanol for 30?min., followed by blocking with 1% bovine albumin in PBS for 1?hr at room temperature. Next, the sections were incubated at 4C overnight with a primary antibody against CHOP (1:200), GRP-78 (1:200), cleaved-PARP (1:200) or cleaved caspase-12 (1:1000). After primary antibody incubation, the sections were washed for 4??10?min. at room temperature and then incubated with donkey antimouse/rabbit, donkey antirabbit/mouse or donkey antigoat secondary antibody (1:500; Invitrogen) for 1?hr at room temperature. The saline injection group was considered the unfavorable control. The images were captured using a Nikon ECLPSE 80i. Western blot Total proteins were purified using protein extraction reagents for the heart tissue and H9C2 cells. The equivalent of 50?g of protein was separated by 12% gel and then transferred onto a PVDF membrane. After blocking with 5% fat-free milk, the membranes were incubated with the relevant protein antibodies Benzyl isothiocyanate overnight. The membranes were washed with TBS and treated with secondary antibodies for 2?hrs at room temperature. The signals were visualized with the ChemiDicTM XRS + Imaging System (Bio-Rad Laboratories), and the band densities were quantified with Multi Gauge Software of Science Lab 2006 (FUJIFILM Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). Statistical analysis Data are expressed as the mean??SEM. Statistical significance was decided using Student’s test. the Control group, #the I/R group; CHOP, GRP-78 and cleaved caspase-12 immunofluorescent analysis that there are few ER stress protein-positive cells in the control group. The numbers of ER stress protein-positive cells increased significantly after 4?hrs of ischaemia reperfusion, Benzyl isothiocyanate and the bFGF treatment group showed significant protective effects (Fig.?(Fig.3A).3A). In addition, western blot and immunofluorescent results all suggested that bFGF inhibits the up-regulation of mitochondrial dysfunction-related proteins cytochrome c (Cyt c), Bax and Bcl-2, which were induced by I/R injury (Figs?(Figs2B2B and ?and3A).3A). To further understand the mechanism underlying behind the effect of bFGF on I/R injury, the activation of PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 downstream signals were also analysed by western blot. As expected, bFGF treatment increased the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2 in the hearts of I/R mice when compared with controls (Fig.?(Fig.2C2C and D). Taken together, these results suggest that the protective role of bFGF in I/R injury is related to the inhibition of ER stress and mitochondrial dysfunction through the activation of the PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 signalling pathways. Open in a separate window Fig 2 The effect of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondrial dysfunction-related proteins in the hearts of mice after myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R). (A) The protein expression levels and optical density analysis of CHOP, GRP-78 and ATF-6.